This paper will therefore break itdown the six elements of Hepatitis A infection from the infectiousagent to susceptible host. For airborne diseases, strategies may be directed at modifying ventilation or air pressure, and filtering or treating the air. Airborne transmission of measles in a physician’s office. Food handlers who areinfected may contaminate non-cooked food, for example, salads.Occurrence of infection is also through contamination of water orfood. The degree of herd immunity necessary to prevent or interrupt an outbreak varies by disease. Preventing epidemic disease requires a coordinated community effort to increase awareness about dengue/DHF, how to recognize it, and how to control the mosquito that transmits it. Diseases that are transmitted from person to person without intermediaries include the sexually transmitted diseases, measles, mumps, streptococcal infection, and many respiratory pathogens. HAV causes inflammation of the liver, which leads to soreness and swelling. Airborne dust includes material that has settled on surfaces and become resuspended by air currents as well as infectious particles blown from the soil by the wind. Return to text. Death from hepatitis A is rare. [updated 2005 Aug 22]. Often, infectious agents use the same portal to enter a new host that they used to exit the source host. The infected individual approaches water source containing noninfected copepods (“water fleas” or “Cyclops”). Hepatitis A is different from other types of hepatitis because it isn't typically as serious and doesn't develop into chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis like hepatitis B and C can. How does Hepatitis A leave the body? As described above, the traditional epidemiologic triad model holds that infectious diseases result from the interaction of agent, host, and environment. One problem is that, in highly immunized populations, the relatively few susceptible persons are often clustered in subgroups defined by socioeconomic or cultural factors. It thenmultiplies and is passed to the faeces from the liver. Children and people who have weak immune systems may be contagious for up to 6 months. Description: The chain of infection has 3 main parts. Vehicles that may indirectly transmit an infectious agent include food, water, biologic products (blood), and fomites (inanimate objects such as handkerchiefs, bedding, or surgical scalpels). Understanding hepatitis. Incubatory carriers are those who can transmit the agent during the incubation period before clinical illness begins. Susceptibility to dengue is universal. If the pathogen is introduced into one of these subgroups, an outbreak may occur. Because humans were the only reservoir for the smallpox virus, naturally occurring smallpox was eradicated after the last human case was identified and isolated.8, Human reservoirs may or may not show the effects of illness. Thereare a few versions of the test that is used to ascertain differentclasses of antibodies in hepatitis A. Measles, for example, has occurred in children who came into a physician’s office after a child with measles had left, because the measles virus remained suspended in the air.(46). Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website. From the liver, the Hepatitis A Virus isreleased into the faeces where it exits through the anal. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Internet]. In addition, Hepatitis A can be spread sexuallywhen there is contact in the anal area from an infected person (Horn,2005). Why is the covid19 vaccine taking so long? Select one: a. Portal of exit b. Mode of spread c. Susceptible host d. Portal of entry. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services;1992. For example, influenza virus exits the respiratory tract of the source host and enters the respiratory tract of the new host. To prevent fecal-oral transmission, efforts often focus on rearranging the environment to reduce the risk of contamination in the future and on changing behaviors, such as promoting handwashing. Principles of epidemiology, 2nd ed. It depends, largely, on the dog's dogma, as to whether or not it contained such sprites. The reservoir may or may not be the source from which an agent is transferred to a host. Reservoirs include humans, animals, and the environment. An individual’s genetic makeup may either increase or decrease susceptibility. A portal of exit is the site from where micro-organisms leave the host to enter another host and cause disease/infection. Horn, L. W. (2005). The virus infection is transmitted by faecal-oral route fromone person to another or through fomites. The portal of entry must provide access to tissues in which the pathogen can multiply or a toxin can act. Accordingto Achord (2002), infection occurs as a result of the complexity inthe relationship between an infectious agent and a potential host,and the severity and occurrence of the disease depends on the host. Thepresents of symptoms may force the infection to last for at leasteight weeks and these may include: vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, fever,yellow skin and abdominal pain. HAV is found in the stool and blood of people who are infected. Some interventions aim to increase a host’s defenses. Animal reservoirs. Specific immunity refers to protective antibodies that are directed against a specific agent. Vectors such as mosquitoes, fleas, and ticks may carry an infectious agent through purely mechanical means or may support growth or changes in the agent. Hepatitis. Within 10 to 14 days larvae ingested by the copepods develop into infective third stage larvae. Droplet spread is classified as direct because transmission is by direct spray over a few feet, before the droplets fall to the ground. Proper application of mosquito repellents containing 20% to 30% DEET as the active ingredient on exposed skin and clothing decreases the risk of being bitten by mosquitoes. When will vaccine for covid 19 be available in india? In addition, young children and infants that areinfected with Hepatitis A Virus may experience a mild illness withvery little or no symptoms at all and the absence of jaundice(Achord, 2002). The larvae are ingested by copepods. Direct contact occurs through skin-to-skin contact, kissing, and sexual intercourse. Jackson:University Press of Mississippi. Hepatitis A symptoms are usually mild and go away on their own. It refers to the route in which the Hepatitis A Virus escapesfrom the human body. for a project. Outbreaks of Legionnaires disease are often traced to water supplies in cooling towers and evaporative condensers, reservoirs for the causative organism Legionella pneumophila. Dengue is transmitted to people by the bite of an Aedes mosquito that is infected with a dengue virus. Plants, soil, and water in the environment are also reservoirs for some infectious agents. There are different classifications for modes of transmission. This may lead to failure of the circulatory system and shock, followed by death, if circulatory failure is not corrected. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever are caused by any one of four closely related flaviviruses, designated DEN-1, DEN–2, DEN-3, or DEN-4. - MANY ANSWERS ARE FLAWED. Humans are also subject to diseases that have animal reservoirs. Susceptibility of a host depends on genetic or constitutional factors, specific immunity, and nonspecific factors that affect an individual’s ability to resist infection or to limit pathogenicity. CDC twenty four seven. Asymptomatic or passive or healthy carriers are those who never experience symptoms despite being infected. Hookworm is spread by direct contact with contaminated soil. Portal ofentry should be able to access the tissues at ease so as to enable atoxin to act or pathogen to multiply. This sequence is sometimes called the chain of infection. There is no vaccine for preventing dengue. For example, the reservoir of Clostridium botulinum is soil, but the source of most botulism infections is improperly canned food containing C. botulinum spores. Vaccinations promote development of specific antibodies that protect against infection. It is extremely important to obtain an accurate diagnosis before trying to find a cure. This refers to the way in which a pathogen is able to accessthe tissues of susceptible host to facilitate transmission. ALL ANSWERS SHOULD BE THOROUGHLY RESEARCHED, IN ANY FORUM AND ESPECIALLY IN THIS ONE. (2006). Droplet spread refers to spray with relatively large, short-range aerosols produced by sneezing, coughing, or even talking. Factors that may increase susceptibility to infection by disrupting host defenses include malnutrition, alcoholism, and disease or therapy that impairs the nonspecific immune response. Monkeys may serve as a reservoir in some parts of Asia and Africa. Portal of Entry and Portal of Exit Virus can enter into our body at many different sites and these are called portals of entry. The portal of exit for hepatitis is the Intestinal Tract. What is the treatment for dengue or dengue hemorrhagic fever? The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. In contrast to droplets that fall to the ground within a few feet, droplet nuclei may remain suspended in the air for long periods of time and may be blown over great distances. Man acquires the infection by ingesting infected copepods in drinking water. For example, a lot of interviewees in SouthKorea mentioned the epidemiologic data that included disease burdenthe hepatitis A source of infection. Many fungal agents, such as those that cause histoplasmosis, live and multiply in the soil. Typhoid Mary: captive to the public’s health. Mode of Transmission. Boston: Beacon Press; 1996. What may also harbor the virus is eating shellfish and oysters(Moore, 2006). Some strategies that protect portals of entry are simple and effective.
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