Leaf venation has increasing usefulness in paleoecology and paleoclimatology, agriculture, urban ecology, and design and technology (Notes S10). In this type of venation there is a prominent vein called the midrib from which arise many small veins which finally form a net like structure in the lamina. Thus, in other species, shade leaves may develop lower, or similar, VLA, with larger, similar‐sized, or even smaller leaves (Sack et al., 2012). https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-893997-94-3.50009-X. Example: Moringa oleifera (drumstick), In this type, the rachis gets branched thrice or more than thrice and the leaflets arise on the ultimate branches. Ever since a seminal review introduced a new integrative science of leaf venation (Roth‐Nebelsick et al., 2001), there has been increasing recognition across plant biology and ecology of the importance of leaf venation. 2. margin form 3. venation. This analysis resulted in critical novel trends (Figs 4, 5), consistent with those reported so far for smaller species sets and individual lineages (Table S1). Based on structural evidence, the most likely route of sucrose transport is from bundle sheath to phloem parenchyma cells through plasmodesmata, followed by efflux into the apoplasm across wall ingrowths and carrier-mediated uptake into the sieve element-companion cell complex. The more genetically robust narrow leaf width trait was proposed to be used as a reliable phenotypic marker for finding high vein density variants in rice in future screens. For third‐order veins, types include percurrent, ramified and reticulate. This can be palmate netted venation, where the veins spread form one central point like fingers from a hand (think of a nasturtium or geranium). Under ground modifications, Parts of a Leaf : 1. Genome duplication effects on functional traits and fitness are genetic context and species dependent: studies of synthetic polyploid Fragaria. The earliest land‐plant lineages lacked vasculature, although some may have had analogous structures. This advanced venation, in addition to a more sophisticated stomatal control system and the floral organ, set the stage for the rise of angiosperms to global dominance. The leaves with stipules are called stipulate leaves and the leaves without stipules are called ex-stipulate leaves. Vein density (length of veins per unit leaf area) is extremely low. Leaf inclination and light interception in the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Example: Coriandrum sativum (coriander), In palmately Further integration of research on leaf venation across fields will hasten discoveries and generate a unified knowledge base across genetics, development, and structure and function. A unified core understanding will enable an increasing range of plant biologists to incorporate leaf venation into their research. A leaf may be defined as “A dorsoventrally compressed, lateral appendage of the stem, produced at the nodes and is specialized to perform photosynthesis.
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