Cheng et al. The same phenotypic features as those found in grape were observed in transgenic tobacco plants in which GMYB10 from Gerbera hybrida, LeANT1 from tomato and AtPAP1 from Arabidopsis were constitutively expressed (Borevitz et al. treated with methylglyoxal... Polyamines have been shown to be involved in a variety of plant physiological processes such as growth, development, and stress responses. The BC226-STS (a1) marker for the red skin color locus (Rf) in apple, developed by Cheng et al. Moreover, the amplified bands in A1a1 and a1a2 genotypes showed the same patterns, which also did not correspond to their skin color. MdMYBA under control of the 35S promoter was introduced into apple cotyledons by means of particle bombardment (A). To get deeper insights into the physiological role of apple ACL5 (MdACL5), we performed yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assay to identify proteins which interact with MdACL5. For pear, this event directly affects fruit production in the following year. We therefore analyzed the changes in MdMYBA expression in apple skins treated with UV-B and different temperatures. A comparison of the genomic sequences of MdMYB1-1 and MdMYB1-3 showed a 67 bp shortage in the first intron of MdMYB1-3 (Takos et al. The expression of MdSAMDC2 gene, which encodes S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) in apple, was up-regulated by low temperature, salt and drought stresses. Based on these efforts, two major factors that affect red coloration have been proposed. 3A), although high levels of anthocyanin accumulation were observed at both 16 and 116 DAFB when anthocyanin concentrations in the skin samples were measured. However, MYB transcription factors such as AtPAP1, AtPAP2, PhAN2, LeANT1 and GMYB10 are sufficient for ectopic activation of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in transgenic plants, possibly through the formation of complexes with endogenous bHLH and WD40 (Quattrocchio et al. These phenotypic differences between the constitutive expression of MdMYBA and other anthocyanin-related MYB transcription factors may be ascribed to whether MYB can induce a bHLH transcription factor or not. Because F1 progeny between ‘Delicious’ × Mitsubakaido had not yet borne fruits, we used 14 apple cultivars with known skin colors to compare MdMYBA markers with apple skin color (Fig.  Honda became engaged to his partner Amy Schwab in May 2019. (B) Schematic structure of the MdANS promoter. 2002) was constitutively expressed in tobacco, anthocyanin accumulation occurred in the whole plant, including both vegetative and reproductive tissues (data not shown). Lane B, BamHI; E, EcoRV; K, KpnI. domestica (Borkh.) were treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Three MYB10 genes, PpMYB10.1, PpMYB10.2, and PpMYB10.3, have been reported as important regulators of red coloration and anthocyanin biosynthesis in peach fruit. These results indicated that MdMYBA can bind specifically to the MdANS promoter F2 fragment.