The Quartering Act was passed primarily in response to greatly increased empire defense costs in America following the French and Indian War and Pontiac’s War. The legislation also taxed paper, paint, lead and glass, which were not produced in the Colonies. These courts were run by judges appointed by the Crown and who were awarded 5% of any fine the judge levied when they found someone guilty. However, the import duties proved to be similarly controversial. These measures exacerbated American discontent, though Parliament was not made to realize how much until 1774.…. The significance of the Townshend Act is that it established non-importation agreements that quickly spread throughout the colonies. The decisions were made solely by the judge, without the option of trial by jury, which was considered to be a fundamental right of British subjects. "The Townshend Acts crisis, 1767–1770." The Acts led to outrage among the colonists … 46; Knollenberg. Townshend Acts, (June 15–July 2, 1767), in colonial U.S. history, series of four acts passed by the British Parliament in an attempt to assert what it considered to be its historic right to exert authority over the colonies through suspension of a recalcitrant representative assembly and through strict provisions for the collection of revenue duties. , Dickinson sent a copy of his "Letters" to James Otis of Massachusetts, informing Otis that "whenever the Cause of American Freedom is to be vindicated, I look towards the Province of Massachusetts Bay". He also sent a letter to Massachusetts Governor Francis Bernard, instructing him to have the Massachusetts House rescind the Circular Letter.  Townshend did not live to see this reaction, having died suddenly on September 4, 1767. According to historian John C. Miller, "Townshend ingeniously sought to take money from Americans by means of parliamentary taxation and to employ it against their liberties by making colonial governors and judges independent of the assemblies. They placed an indirect tax on glass, lead, paints, paper, and tea, all of which had to be imported from Britain. , The British East India Company was one of England's largest companies, but was on the verge of collapse due to much cheaper smuggled Dutch tea. Customs officials seized the sloop Liberty, owned by John Hancock, on charges of smuggling. Customs officials seized the sloop. • Townshend did not live to see the impact of the acts because he died suddenly in 1767. Sign up now, Latest answer posted September 24, 2015 at 3:35:27 AM, Latest answer posted November 22, 2015 at 3:03:13 AM, Latest answer posted February 22, 2016 at 4:22:48 AM, Latest answer posted October 09, 2016 at 6:51:55 PM, Latest answer posted August 08, 2018 at 6:16:59 AM. In 1767, however, Charles Townshend decided to impose new taxes. The 1773 Tea Act enabled the company to import tea directly into the Colonies, which furthered harmed Colonial shipping companies. The third act established strict and often arbitrary machinery of customs collection in the American colonies, including additional officers, searchers, spies, coast guard vessels, search warrants, writs of assistance, and a Board of Customs Commissioners at Boston, all to be financed out of customs revenues. The New York Restraining Act was never implemented because the New York Assembly acted in time. The Board was created to enforce shipping regulations and increase tax revenue. These acts raised the price of tea and hurt Colonial shipping companies. How did the colonists respond to these laws? , The newly created American Customs Board was seated in Boston, and so it was there that the Board concentrated on strictly enforcing the Townshend Acts. The Townshend duty on tea was retained when the 1773 Tea Act was passed, which allowed the East India Company to ship tea directly to the colonies. Start your 48-hour free trial and unlock all the summaries, Q&A, and analyses you need to get better grades now. The Townshend Acts (/ˈtaʊnzənd/) or Townshend Duties, refers to a series of British acts of Parliament passed during 1767 and 1768 relating to the British colonies in America. FEN Learning is part of Sandbox Networks, a digital learning company that operates education services and products for the 21st century.  Townshend changed the purpose of the tax plan, however, and instead decided to use the revenue to pay the salaries of some colonial governors and judges. Charles Townshend never saw the result of his acts as he died in September of 1767. , People in Massachusetts learned in September 1768 that troops were on the way. The Townshend Acts renewed a fierce debate over the British Parliament’s right to tax the colonies. The taxes that were imposed by the Townshend Acts of 1767 were important because they helped to reignite anger in the colonies against England. It also created the American Board of Customs Commissioners and new admiralty courts to reinforce trade acts and collection of duties. Merchants in other colonial ports, including New York City and Philadelphia, eventually joined the boycott. New York resisted the Quartering Act because it amounted to taxation without representation, since they had no representatives in Parliament. While it ended French influence in North America east of the Mississippi River, it generated a large amount of debt for the British Crown.  This issue, only briefly debated following the Sugar Act, became a major point of contention after Parliament's passage of the Stamp Act 1765.  The Indemnity Act 1767 reduced taxes on the British East India Company when they imported tea into England. |  The "Journal of Occurrences", an anonymously written series of newspaper articles, chronicled clashes between civilians and soldiers during the military occupation of Boston, apparently with some exaggeration.  The American Customs Board would generate considerable hostility in the colonies towards the British government. As the other educator has highlighted, the Townshend Acts caused a lot of anger in the colonies. The world’s first iron bridge was built in England.  Previously, the colonial assemblies had paid these salaries, but Parliament hoped to take the "power of the purse" away from the colonies. Learn more about the world with our collection of regional and country maps. They are named after Charles Townshend, the Chancellor of the Exchequer who proposed the program. In response to the petitions, the newly appointed Colonial Secretary Lord Hillsborough ordered that Colonial assemblies be dissolved. Named after Charles Townshend, the Townshend Acts taxed certain consumer goods with the purpose of raising revenue. , Merchants in the colonies, some of them smugglers, organized economic boycotts to put pressure on their British counterparts to work for repeal of the Townshend Acts. This led to the Boston Massacre.. The Stamp Act also broached questions about the British Parliament’s authority in the Colonies. This series of legislative acts, which became known as the Townshend Acts, included the Revenue and Indemnity acts of 1767. Lord Charles Townshend, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, after whom the Townshend Acts were named, had died suddenly in September, 1767. They were resisted everywhere with verbal agitation and physical violence, deliberate evasion of duties, renewed nonimportation agreements among merchants, and overt acts of hostility toward British enforcement agents, especially in Boston. They were designed to collect revenue from the colonists in America by putting customs duties on imports of glass, lead, paints, paper, and tea. Like the Stamp Act of the same year, it also was an assertion of British authority over the colonies, in disregard of the fact that troop financing had been exercised for 150 years by representative provincial assemblies rather than by the … Due to the distance, enforcement was poor, taxes were avoided and smuggling was rampant. The Suspending Act prohibited the New York Assembly from conducting any further business until it complied with the financial requirements of the Quartering Act (1765) for the expenses of British troops stationed there.  According to historian Peter Thomas, Townshend's "aims were political rather than financial". The subsequent arrival and quartering of additional troops in the city was one of the factors that led to the Boston Massacre in 1770. The Act was not passed by Parliament, but by the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury, with the approval of the King. American resentment, corrupt British officials, and abusive enforcement spurred colonial attacks on British ships, including the burning of the Gaspee in 1772. Historical Facts About The Townshend Acts, Known as the French and Indian War in the United States, the, The Sugar Act of 1764 was the first direct tax on the Colonies for the sole purpose of raising revenue. In fact, the modification of the Townshend Duties Act was scarcely any change at all.. , This was the second of the five acts, passed on June 26, 1767. One ominous result was that colonists now began to believe that the…, …then chancellor of exchequer, levied duties on certain imports into the colonies, including a duty on tea, and linked this proposal with plans to remodel colonial government. It was an incentive for the colonists to purchase the East India Company tea. The Act was passed to aid the prosecution of smugglers. Incidents between customs and officials, military personnel and colonists broke out across the colonies, eventually leading to the occupation of Boston by British troops. Patriots like Samuel Adams and Patrick Henry spoke out against the act believing that it violated the principles of the Magna Carta.