Pembina Institute Executive Director, http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20q?search=Vespula+rufa, http://www.bwars.com/index.php?q=wasp/vespidae/vespinae/vespula-rufa, https://www.academia.edu/1463411/Archer_1997a_Taxonomy_distribution_and_nesting_biology_of_the_Euro-Asian_species_of_the_Vespula_rufa_group_Hymenoptera_Vespidae_, http://www.biology.ualberta.ca/bsc/ejournal/bmc_05/95v_rufa.html, "The Vespinae of North America (Vespidae, Hymenoptera)", "Hornets Can Fly at Night without Obvious Adaptations of Eyes and Ocelli", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vespula_rufa&oldid=976168122, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 1 September 2020, at 15:06. The wasp slowly flies back and forth to the nest several times, surveying an angle that is approximately 90 degrees, while facing the entrance.  The nests are generally found in dry banks underground but close to the surface.  This differs from typical Red Wasps, V. rufa, of the western Palearctic that have ivory rather than yellow markings. Samsung Device Care Security, Vespula rufa is a member of the genus Vespula. It is a rural species and like other social wasps is a predator of insects (to feed its grubs), quickly stinging them to death, but it does not scavenge for meat. Kimsey, L. S. (2012).  This differs from typical Red Wasps, V. rufa, of the western Palearctic that have ivory rather than yellow markings. Vmi Soccer Roster, For comparison Vespa crabro (the European Hornet) has a much larger body and thus a greater eye length of 3.7mm enabling it to forage in moonlight at 0.2 lux. The level is related to the compound eye length, 2.4 mm in this species. Listen more closely and you might be hear the delicate scratching of a wasp on the wood of your garden shed. It sounds harmonious but look closer and you’ll see a veritable Game of Thrones in full swing. They belong to the 'Apocrita Aculeata' group of the Hymenoptera, i.e. Retrieved from: Buck, Matthias, Marshall, Stephen, A., and Cheung, David, K.,B. A Test of Worker Policing Theory in an Advanced Eusocial Wasp, Vespula rufa.  When the last larval stage is near its end, "the gut contents are evacuated to form the meconium at the bottom of the cell." World distribution: Information not available at the time of writing, but evidently widespread in Europe and extending through Asia. , V. rufa can be distinguished by its reddish-brown markings on the back. There are other reasons to admire wasps. V. germanica tends to be more bad tempered than V. vulgaris. (Dolochovespula species are facially also somewhat similar.). Their nests are smaller and always underground. Instead the workers chew up the prey and feed it to the larvae. Vespula rufa (Linnaeus,1758). Because of its parasitic behaviour, V. austriaca does not produce workers, but relies on the host workers for rearing.  One interesting fact about Vespula rufa is that the queen policing occurs in the species, and that worker policing occurs at much lower rates than other species in the genus Vespula. Try 3 issues of BBC Countryfile for just £5! According to kin selection theory, queens should carry out policing because queens are closer relatives to their own sons than to their workers' sons - that is their daughters' sons. Vespula flavopilosa insect 1 Vespula rufa insect 2 Fig.  Through evolution, mechanisms to encourage group effectiveness and minimise individual's selfish interests have evolved.